Quantum teleportation focuses on moving matter from one place, to another over a great distance without having to physically send anything between the two location. Quantum teleportation does not function according to and does not aim to achieve the classical means of teleportation which the world has grown accustomed to thanks to sci-fi.
Nevertheless, before we get to that level of instant travel, these recent experiments in quantum teleportation will help pave the way to a quantum internet. Users of a quantum internet would never have to worry about upload, download, or latency ever again.
Through the quantum internet, petabytes of data can instantly travel from one end of the world to the other at a speed which will be entirely dictated by the performance abilities of our hardware. In short, the quantum internet is the dream and quantum teleportation is how we get to it.
The phenomenon known as entanglement has to do with the links between sub-atomic particles. This link can continue to exist between particles, even when they are separated over a great distance. Einstein had issues explaining the phenomenon and modern science has not really made further steps in understanding how entanglement works, they were just able to tell that it does.
Using entanglement, researchers created two photons at point A. Photons are sub-atomic particles. The occurrence of the entanglement phenomenon was ensured. Furthermore, photons are light particles. They travel with the speed of light.
They sent one of the two photons along from point A to point B via a fiber optics cable which was approximately seven miles long.
At point C, the researchers repeated the procedure and sent one of these new two photons to point A via another fiber optics cable which was approximately 5 miles long.
The entire process meant that the quantum state of a photon in point C, was brought via quantum teleportation to point A, and then ultimately to point B.
Many other successful experiments in quantum teleportation were able to transfer the quantum state of a photon from one point to the other over distances ten times as long. However, this has been the first successful experiment where the quantum state of a photon was passed on to another photon which in turn was affected by a transfer of its own quantum state.